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University Research on the Psychology of Name retention

Lily Robertson updates us on new research into name retention by the Department of Psychology

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Jim Hunt

Members of the Department of Psychology at the University of York have recently published the results of a survey investigating name retention in a paper titled ' 'I recognise your name, but I can't remember your face: an advantage for names in recognition memory' in 'The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology'. The research suggests that when we castigate ourselves for forgetting someone's name we are placing unfair demands on our brains. Remembering a person's face in this situation relies on recognition, but remembering their name is a matter of recall, and it is already well-established that human beings are much better at the former than the latter. The researchers also point out that we only become aware that we have forgotten a name when we have already recognised the face.

We rarely have to confront the problem of knowing a name, but not a face - remaining blissfully unaware of the countless faces we should recognise, but walk straight past on the street. For the study, the researchers designed a "fair test", pitting names against faces on a level playing field. They set up an experiment to place equal demands on the ability of participants to remember faces and names by testing both in a game of recognition.The results showed participants scored consistently higher at remembering names than faces - recognising as little as 64% of faces and up to 83% of names in the tests. Dr Rob Jenkins, one of the authors of the paper, said: "Our study suggests that, while many people may be bad at remembering names, they are likely to be even worse at remembering faces. This will surprise many people as it contradicts our intuitive understanding. "Our life experiences with names and faces have misled us about how our minds work, but if we eliminate the double standards we are placing on memory, we start to see a different picture." For the study, participants were given an allotted period of time to memorise unknown faces and names and then tested on which ones they thought they had seen before.

The results show that we are particularly bad at recognising unknown faces, but even with faces and names we have encountered before, we still don't perform better at recognising faces than names at any point. Dr Jenkins added: "Knowing someone's face, but not remembering their name is an everyday phenomenon. Our knee-jerk reaction to it is to say that names must be harder to memorise than faces, but researchers have never been able to come up with a convincing explanation as to why that might be. This study suggests a resolution to that problem by showing that it is actually a red herring in the first place."

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